Medical issues: Cats may urinate outside the litter box due to urinary tract infections, bladder stones, or other medical conditions that cause discomfort or pain during urination.
Litter box problems: Cats may avoid the litter box if it's dirty, has an inappropriate litter substrate, or is too small or difficult to access.
Stress or anxiety: Changes in the environment, new pets, or conflicts with other animals can cause cats to urinate outside the litter box due to stress or anxiety.
Territory marking: Unneutered male cats or even spayed/neutered cats may mark their territory by spraying urine on vertical surfaces.
Behavioral issues: Cats may develop behavioral issues that lead to inappropriate elimination, such as attention-seeking behavior or negative associations with the litter box.
Aging or mobility issues: Older cats or those with mobility problems may find it challenging to access the litter box, leading them to seek alternative spots for urination.